The anus is the end of the large intestine , below the rectum , through which stool solid waste leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles, called sphincter muscles, open and close the anal opening and let stool pass out of the body. The skin around the outside of the anus is called the perianal area. Tumors of the perianal skin that do not involve the anal sphincter are usually treated the same as anal cancers , although local therapy treatment directed to a limited area of skin may be used for some. Risk factors for anal cancer include the following:.
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The anus usually consists of soft tissue. However, this tissue can become hard due to infections and other medical conditions, many of which range in severity. When this happens, it may feel as though there is a hard lump in the area. The anus is the opening at the lower part of the digestive tract, where stool exits the body. It connects to the rectum, which stores stool before passing it. This article looks at what can cause a hard anus, the accompanying symptoms, and what treatments are available to treat a hard anus. If anything causes irritation, a blockage, or an infection, lumps may form on the anus that can make it feel hard.
What can cause a hard lump in the anus?
Anal squamous cell carcinoma was a previously uncommon malignancy that has steadily increased in incidence with the increased prevalence of human papillomavirus HPV and human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Anal squamous cell carcinoma is typically characterized by local and regional involvement and distant metastases are far less common. The positron emission tomography—computed tomography PET-CT uptake of her original left inguinal lymph node was decreased, suggesting improved regional disease, and no other metastases were found. Squamous cell carcinomas comprise the vast majority of anal cancers.